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THE HENDRE, GARDENS, LLANGATTOCK-VIBON-AVEL

Site Details



NPRN 265925

Map Reference SO41SE

Grid Reference SO4576014163

Unitary (Local) Authority Monmouthshire

Old County Monmouthshire

Community Llangattock-vibon-avel

Type of Site COUNTRY HOUSE GARDEN

Broad Class GARDENS PARKS AND URBAN SPACES

Period Post Medieval

Site Description Parklands & Gardens of Wales No:PGW.GT17
Associated with: House (Nprn37025) and Reservoir/ice house (Nprn309211).
RCAHMW AP94-CS 0379-81
RCAHMW AP945053/50-1; 965071/50

This garden is depicted on the Second Edition Ordnance Survey 25-inch map of Monmouthshire VIII, sheet 14 (1901). Its main elements on that map include haw haw, pavilion, parterres, weir, woodland with vista paths, walled garden, waterfall, walk, possible viewing platform, terrace, summerhouse, swiss cottage, caxton tower, deer park, relict hedgelines, boathouse, lake, fountains, woodland, gasometer, carriage drive, conservatory, greenhouses, lawns, lodges, sunken garden, pond, pump, kitchen garden, avenue, stepping stones and parkland.

The Hendre is a l9th-century landscape park (with with l7th-century origins), 19th century formal gardens, arboretum and walled kitchen garden a well preserved landscape park, (mainly l9th-century), including picturesque drive by H.E. Milner.

The remaining house is largely of 19th century appearance surroundied by a large well wooded park of c. l000 acres, originally known as the Deer Park. It is dotted with many isolated mature trees (mainly oak) and clumps of deciduous and coniferous trees. The overall effect is varied and picturesque.

The general configuration of the park may already have been in existence well before the Rolls family came to live here in the l9th century. It includes some very ancient oaks and was used in the l7th century by the Rolls family for sport. A map of the estate by John Aram, in c. l800 includes only a small part of what later became the park (extending from the brook on the E to the 'turnpike' road to the N, the fields on the W as far as the Home Farm and S as far as Upper Hendre). The landscaping was mainly done by Lord Llangattock towards the end of the l9th century - by the time of the 6" OS map (l886) the northern part of the park was in existence. The 5 km long drive was designed by Lord Llangattock in conjunction with H.E. Milner (landscape architect, son of Edward Milner) in the l890s reputedly built to relieve unemployment. The design includes Pulham rockwork of 1837-50, and bridgesThe main structural components of the park are the drives, of which there are four: the 3-mile drive (which branches into two towards its W end), the N drive, the village drive, and the W drive. Only the village drive is now in use, all the others are reduced to gravel tracks, although they were so well built that they remain in good condition. The village drive and the N drive are the earliest. Both the W drive and the 3-mile drive were built in the l890s, and once the 3-mile drive was built this became the main entrance.

The Pleasure gardens were made from the middle of the l9th century onwards. At the end of the l9th century visitors called them 'free and varied' praising the planting, which consisted of annuals, perennials, many flowering and coloured foliage shrubs, and the varied coniferous and deciduous trees in what is now called the arboretum.

The gardens include level terraced lawns joined by steps and bounded by a ha-ha, partly by wall and balustrading. There is a sunken garden with a cast-iron fountain and the remains of formal beds and paths. The SE lawn was originally planted with zig-zag clipped yew hedges which were used to shelter late-flowering perennials which have gone there was also topiary and a small pavilion, one of two in the garden.

There is an arboretum to the W of the house.

C.S.Briggs 20.03.06

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