An area of lead mining with a complex history from 1870s. The area was mined by several different companies under different names (1).
The three editions of the 25-inch Ordnance Survey map name the mine successively as Willoughby Lead Mine (1889), Welsh Foxdale Lead Mine (1900), and New Pandora Lead Mine (1913). Water was collected in three reservoirs to the east and north-east of the mine complex, and conveyed by a series of leats to at least three waterwheels at different periods. The 1913 map shows a tramway from the complex, leading round the south end of a spur to the west and turning north along the east shore of Llyn Geirionydd, a total distance of 2.8 kilometres. It terminated at a point on the east side of the valley of the Afon Geirionydd, from which an aerial ropeway conveyed ore to the New Pandora Lead Works (NPRN 33781, identified as Klondyke Mine) for processing. A leat from the Afon Geirionydd ran alongside the tramway to a tank at the terminus, probably feeding a turbine at the works. The works is thought to have been erected in 1899, but is not depicted on the 25-inch O. S. map of 1900.
A further mine level, with an engine house which appears to be associated with water courses, is depicted on the third-edition map by the tramway on the east side of LLyn Geirionydd at SH7630260448.
(1) Bennett and Vernon 1995, Mines of the Gwydyr Forest part 6.
W J Crompton, RCAHMW, 9 June 2011; Jane Kenney, GAT, 08 January 2014.